The official name is Republic of Colombia.
The capital is Bogota.
The territory is 1.141.748 sq.km.
The length of Caribbean coast is 1600 km.
The length of the Pacific coast is 1300 km.
The population is approximately 42million people. (mixed, half-breeds, white, mulattos, Afrocolombians, Indigenous).
The official language is Spanish and there are 64 Indigenous languages plus the Creolian language of the archipelago San Andres and Providencia.
The main religion is catholicism. There is a freedom of cults.
The currency is Colombian peso.
The approximate rate to the dollar is 2 300 Colombian pesos.
The country is administratively divided into 32 departments.
On the north there is the Caribbean sea. On the west Colombia borders Panama, and limited by the Pacific coast. On the east it borders on Venezuela and Brazil, in the south, Ecuador and Peru.
In view of the tropical position, there are no changes of season nor abrupt changes in the temperature. The climate changes depending on height in the relation to sea level. 80% of the territory of Colombia is at sea level, where the climate is hot and moist, for example, in such cities as Cartagena, Santa Martha, San Andres, and Leticia.
At the height of 1000 to 2000 m. (10% of territory) the temperature is from 17 to 24 degrees Celsius, in Medellin city, Pereira, Armenia.
At the height of 2000 to 3000 m. (8% of territory) the temperature is from 12 to 17 degrees Celsius, in Bogota, Manisales, Tunkha, Pasto.
Temperatures below 12 degrees are observed in the high mountain region starting at 3000 meters in The National park of Los Nevados.
Colombia contains 10% of the flora and fauna of the entire Earth, 5th place in the world on the variety of primates. It has 51 national parks, 2 oceans, 3 cordilleras, including 2 of the highest mountains in the world at the sea coast, active volcanoes, Amazonia, Orinokia, and 2 deserts.
On its territory there are 2 “hot spot” zones the places, where the greatest ecological wealth is concentrated.
For the archaelogical and anthropological, the 2 largest centres of the pre-Columbus culture of the world value are concentrated in Colombia - San Agustin and the Lost City in Santa Marta.
The richest world collection of gold articles from the pre-Columbus period is also in Colombia.